Wednesday, July 24, 2013

Heart Anatomy

       The heart is located in the thoracic cavity, around the center line between the sternum and vertebrae anterior to the posterior side. The heart has a wide base at the top and tapered to form the bottom end is called the apex. When the heart beats (contractions) are strong, hit the apex of the chest wall on the left. The fact that the heart is located between the two structures, namely the sternum and vertebrae bones, used as part of cardiopulmonary resuscitation on the rescue action.
        The heart consists of three layers of epicardium, myocardium and endocardium. Normal heart is wrapped by the pericardium lies in the medial mediastinum and partially covered by the lungs. The front is bounded by the sternum and ribs III, IV, and V. Almost two-thirds of the heart lies to the left of the median line of the sternum. The heart lies in the left fore oblique diaphragms and the apex beat was at the forefront in the chest cavity. Musty heart can be touched in between the ribs IV - V near the mid-line of the left clavicle. Cranial boundary formed by the descending aorta, pulmonary artery and superior vena cava. Right atrial size and weight of the heart depends on age, sex, height, fat and nutrients a person epicardium. The heart consists of 4 rooms, namely the right and left atrium and the right ventricle and the left. Right and left hemispheres separated by a septum

       Right atrial venous blood flow to the heart (right atrium) through the inferior vena cava and superior vena cava, which accommodated during the phase of ventricular systole. Then during the diastole phase of the blood in the right atrium flows into the right ventricle through the tricuspid valve. Anatomically right atrium lies ahead rather than the right ventricle and left atrium. On the right atrium anterosuperior curvature of space are called auricle. Both vena cava empties at different places, the superior vena cava empties on superoposterior wall, while the inferior vena cava empties in inferolateroposterior. At the inferior, vena cava are rudimentary valve called Eustachian valve. Posteroinferior interatrial septum lies in the right atrial wall media. In the mid-septum are shallow oval indentation called the fossa ovalis, which has remained in the anterior fold and called the limbus fossa ovalis. Coronary sinus, which holds the venous blood from the heart wall and comes down to the right atrium, located between the inferior vena cava and the tricuspid valve. At the mouth of the coronary sinus are rudimentary folds of connective tissue called Thebessi valves. On the right atrium also contained power source node of the heart, its called the sinoatrial node, located at the lateral edge of the meetings between the superior vena cava and auricle, right below the sulcus terminalis. While node of Artium - ventricular (AV nodes) is located on the anteromedial under the tricuspid valve.

        Right Ventricle is located just below the manubrium sterni. Most of the right ventricle is on the right front of the left ventricle and left atrium in the media. Functionally the right ventricle can be divided into incoming flow and flow out. Inflows chamber right ventricle (Right ventricular inflow tract) bounded by the tricuspid valve,  anterior trabeculae and inferior wall of the right ventricle. Tricuspid valve protects the interventricular osteum, consists of three valves are formed by folds with a slight endocardial fibrous tissue covering the anterior and inferior (posterior) valve septalis . Base valve attached to the fibrous ring of the heart while the free end of the frame and attached to the ventricular surface of the chordae tendinae. While the grooves out right ventricle (Right ventricular outflow tract) smooth-walled tubular section is called the superior right ventricular infundibulum or conus arteriosus. Valvular pulmonary truncus protect ostium pulmonary truncus and consists of three valves semilunaris endocardial folds formed by fibrous tissue with little. The left atrium left atrium receives blood from four pulmonary veins that lead to the wall posterro-superior or postero-lateral, each pair of veins right and left vein. The layout is in the left atrium of the heart chambers posterosuperior other, so that the chest radiograph is not visible. Endocardial slick, and muscle pectinatus only in auricle.

       The left ventricle, the left leads to the anteromedial part - the left inferior to the apex cordis. Left ventricular wall three times thicker than the walls of the right ventricle (left ventricular pressure at six times higher than the right ventricle). The left ventricle through the left atrium associated with mitral valve, which protects the atrioventricular ostium. Consists of two valves, vanterior and posterior valve. Anterior valve is located between the larger and the ostium atrioventricular and aortic ostium. The left ventricle through the aorta associated with aortic valve, aortic ostium protect. One valve is located in the anterior (Valves semilunaris dextra) and two katubs located in the posterior wall (sinistra and posterior valvula semilunaris ). Behind every wall of the aortic valve is prominent, forming the aortic sinus. Anterior aortic sinus is the exit right coronary artery and the left posterior sinus discharge where the left coronary artery.

Cardiac vascularization.
        Vascularization of the heart gets dextra and left coronary arteries, which originate from the ascending aorta just above the valve aortae. Coronary artery and main branches are the heart surface, is located in the subepicardial connective tissue. Dextra coronary artery from the anterior aortic sinus and runs forward between the pulmonary trunk and auricula dextra. This artery runs down almost dextra ventricle in the atrio-ventricular sulcus.
1. Ramus coni arteriosus, blood supply facies anterior pulmonary conus (dextra ventricular infundibulum) and the top of the anterior dextra ventricular wall .
2. Ramus anterior ventricular , the blood supply to the anterior ventriculus dextra facies. Ramus marginalis dextra is the largest branch and runs along the bottom edge of the intercostal facies to reach the apex cordis.
3. Ramus ventricular  ventriculus dextra. blood supply to the facies of diaphragmatica
4. Posterior Interventricular   branch (descending), running toward the apex of the posterior interventricular sulcus. Gives branches to the ventriculus and sinister dextra including inferior wall. Provide branching to the posterior ventricular septum but not to the apical portion of the ramus inventriculus bleeding receiving anterior coronary arterria sinister. A large branch node atrioventricularis blood supply.
5. Ramus atrialis, some branches of the anterior surface of the blood supply and the lateral atrial dextra. Atria lymph nodes sinoatrialis blood supply, the right atrium and left.

       The left coronary artery, greater than dextra coronary artery, the blood supply most of the heart, including the majority of the left atrium, left ventricle and ventricular septum. This artery originating from the left posterior aortic sinus and ascending runs forward between the pulmonary trunk and auricle sinister. The vessel then walked atrioventricularis and forked sulcus into the anterior interventricular ramus and ramus circumflexus.
1. Interventricular ramus (descendens) anterior, run down in the anterior interventricular sulcus to the cardiac apex. In most people this vessel then walk around to get to the apex cordis posterior interventricular sulcus and anastomoses with the terminal branches of the coronary artery dextra
2. Ramus circumflexus, these vessels encircling the left side of the heart in the atrioventricular sulcus. Ramus marginalis is the largest branch supplies blood to the left ventricle and the left boundary down to the apex beat.
Heart Vein vessels
       Most of the returning blood from the heart to the right Artrium through coronary sinus, which is located in the posterior atrioventricular groove and a continuation of the vein cardiaca magna. This vessel empties into the right atrium of the left inferior vena cava .. cardiaca parva vein and venous sinus cardiaca a branch coronarius media. The rest is diverted to the right atrium through dextra anterior ventricular vein and through the small veins that empties directly into the heart chambers.

Cardiac innervation.
      The heart is innervated by sympathetic fibers and parasympathetic autonomic nervous system through cardiacus plexus located below the aortic arch. Comes from the sympathetic nerves and thoracale cervicale upper truncus symphaticus, and parasympathetic innervation from the vagus. Postganglionic sympathetic fibers ending in the sinoatrial node and the atrioventricular node, the muscle fibers of the heart and coronary arteries. Sympathetic nerve stimulation resulted in acceleration of the heart, increasing heart rate (the contraction of the heart muscle) and dilatation of the coronary artery. Postganglionic parasympathetic fibers end in the sinoatrial node and the atrioventricular node and the coronary artery. Parasympathetic nerve stimulation resulted in reduced heart rate (the contraction of the heart muscle) and coronary artery constriction. Afferent fibers that run along the sympathetic nerves that carry nerve implus usually can not be realized. However, when the blood supply to the heart muscle is reduced or interrupted, then implus pain can be felt through the track. Afferent fibers that run along the vagus nerve to take part in cardiovascular reflexes.

1 comment:

  1. halloo.. nice information.. sangat bermanfaat untuk yang membutuhkan.. ^^


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